TURKEY

Information about travelling to Turkey

Turkey is located in Southeastern Europe and Southwestern Asia (that portion of Turkey west of the Bosporus is geographically part of Europe), bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Georgia, and bordering the Aegean Sea and the Mediterranean Sea, between Greece and Syria

Facts about Turkey
Population71,892,808 (July 2008 est
CapitalAnkara
Time zoneUTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time) daylight saving time: +1hr, begin
Location Southeastern Europe and Southwestern Asia (that portion of Turkey west of the Bosporus is geographically part of Europe), bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Georgia, and bordering the Aegean Sea and the Mediterranean Sea, between Greece and Syria

General info about Turkey
Modern Turkey was founded in 1923 from the Anatolian remnants of the defeated Ottoman Empire by national hero Mustafa KEMAL, who was later honored with the title Ataturk or "Father of the Turks." Under his authoritarian leadership, the country adopted wide-ranging social, legal, and political reforms. After a period of one-party rule, an experiment with multi-party politics led to the 1950 election victory of the opposition Democratic Party and the peaceful transfer of power. Since then, Turkish political parties have multiplied, but democracy has been fractured by periods of instability and intermittent military coups (1960, 1971, 1980), which in each case eventually resulted in a return of political power to civilians. In 1997, the military again helped engineer the ouster - popularly dubbed a "post-modern coup" - of the then Islamic-oriented government. Turkey intervened militarily on Cyprus in 1974 to prevent a Greek takeover of the island and has since acted as patron state to the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus," which only Turkey recognizes. A separatist insurgency begun in 1984 by the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) - now known as the People's Congress of Kurdistan or Kongra-Gel (KGK) - has dominated the Turkish military's attention and claimed more than 30,000 lives. After the capture of the group's leader in 1999, the insurgents largely withdrew from Turkey mainly to northern Iraq. In 2004, KGK announced an end to its ceasefire and attacks attributed to the KGK increased. Turkey joined the UN in 1945 and in 1952 it became a member of NATO. In 1964, Turkey became an associate member of the European Community. Over the past decade, it has undertaken many reforms to strengthen its democracy and economy; it began accession membership talks with the European Union in 2005.
Languages spoken
Turkish (official), Kurdish, Dimli (or Zaza), Azeri, Kabardian note: there is also a substantial Gagauz population in the European part of Turkey
What about drugs?
key transit route for Southwest Asian heroin to Western Europe and, to a lesser extent, the US - via air, land, and sea routes; major Turkish and other international trafficking organizations operate out of Istanbul; laboratories to convert imported morphine base into heroin exist in remote regions of Turkey and near Istanbul; government maintains strict controls over areas of legal opium poppy cultivation and over output of poppy straw concentrate; lax enforcement of money-laundering controls
Ethnic division
Turkish 80%, Kurdish 20% (estimated)
HIV/AIDS prevalence rate
less than 0.1%; note - no country specific models provided (2001 est.)
Climate
temperate; hot, dry summers with mild, wet winters; harsher in interior
Resources
coal, iron ore, copper, chromium, antimony, mercury, gold, barite, borate, celestite (strontium), emery, feldspar, limestone, magnesite, marble, perlite, pumice, pyrites (sulfur), clay, arable land, hydropower
Economy
Turkey's dynamic economy is a complex mix of modern industry and commerce along with a traditional agriculture sector that still accounts for more than 35% of employment. It has a strong and rapidly growing private sector, yet the state still plays a major role in basic industry, banking, transport, and communication. The largest industrial sector is textiles and clothing, which accounts for one-third of industrial employment; it faces stiff competition in international markets with the end of the global quota system. However, other sectors, notably the automotive and electronics industries, are rising in importance within Turkey's export mix. Real GNP growth has exceeded 6% in many years, but this strong expansion has been interrupted by sharp declines in output in 1994, 1999, and 2001. The economy is turning around with the implementation of economic reforms, and 2004 GDP growth reached 9%, followed by roughly 5% annual growth from 2005-07. Inflation fell to 7.7% in 2005 - a 30-year low - but climbed back to 8.5% in 2007. Despite the strong economic gains from 2002-07, which were largely due to renewed investor interest in emerging markets, IMF backing, and tighter fiscal policy, the economy is still burdened by a high current account deficit and high external debt. Further economic and judicial reforms and prospective EU membership are expected to boost foreign direct investment. The stock value of FDI currently stands at about $85 billion. Privatization sales are currently approaching $21 billion. Oil began to flow through the Baku-Tblisi-Ceyhan pipeline in May 2006, marking a major milestone that will bring up to 1 million barrels per day from the Caspian to market. In 2007, Turkish financial markets weathered significant domestic political turmoil, including turbulence sparked by controversy over the selection of former Foreign Minister Abdullah GUL as Turkey's 11th president and the possible closure of the Justice and Development Party (AKP). Economic fundamentals are sound, marked by moderate economic growth and foreign direct investment. Nevertheless, the Turkish economy may be faced with more negative economic indicators in 2009 as a result of the global economic slowdown. In addition, Turkey's high current account deficit leaves the economy vulnerable to destabilizing shifts in investor confidence.
Environment
water pollution from dumping of chemicals and detergents; air pollution, particularly in urban areas; deforestation; concern for oil spills from increasing Bosporus ship traffic

Cities in Turkey

adana     adilcevaz     afsin     afyonkarahisar     agva     ahlat     akcaabat     akcakoca     akdagmadeni     akhisar     aksaray     aksehir     alaca     alanya     alasehir     aliaga     amasya     anamur     ankara     antakya     antalya     ardahan     ardesen     artvin     babaeski     bafra     bahce     batman     bayburt     belen     bergama     besikduzu     beysehir     biga     bilecik     bingol     birecik     bismil     bitlis     bodrum     bolu     bor     boyabat     bozova     bozuyuk     bucak     bulancak     burdur     burhaniye     bursa     buyukcavuslu     can     canakkale     canta     carsamba     catalca     cay     cayeli     celaliye     cerkezkoy     cermik     cesme     ceyhan     cine     cizre     corlu     corum     cubuk     cumra     degirmen     demirci     denizli     derik     develi     devrek     dinar     dortyol     durusu     duzce     edirne     edremit     elbistan     elmadag     emet     emirdag     erbaa     ercis     erdemli     eregli     ergani     erzincan     erzurum     esenyurt     eskil     eskisehir     fatsa     fethiye     gaziantep     gebze     gediz     gelibolu     gemlik     genc     gerede     giresun     goksun     golcuk     golkoy     gonen     gorele     gumushane     gumusyaka     gurgentepe     gursu     hadimkoy     hakkari     hayrabolu     hendek     horasan     idil     igdir     imamoglu     inegol     iskenderun     iskilip     islahiye     isparta     istanbul     izmir     izmit     iznik     kadirli     kahramanmaras     kahta     kaman     karabuk     karacabey     karacakoy     karakose     karaman     karamursel     kars     kastamonu     kavakli     kayseri     kemalpasa     kesan     keskin     kestel     kilis     kirac     konya     korfez     kozan     kozluk     kula     kulu     kumburgaz     kumluca     kurtalan     kutahya     luleburgaz     malatya     malazgirt     malkara     manavgat     manisa     mardin     marmaris     menemen     mersin     merzifon     midyat     milas     mimarsinan     mudanya     mugla     muratbey     mus     mustafakemalpasa     mut     nazilli     nevsehir     nigde     niksar     nizip     nusaybin     odemis     of     oltu     ordu     orhangazi     ortakoy     osmaniye     pasinler     patnos     rize     safranbolu     salihli     samandag     samsun     sarkikaraagac     sebinkarahisar     selcuk     selimpasa     sereflikochisar     serik     seydisehir     siirt     sile     silifke     silivri     silopi     silvan     simav     sinop     sirnak     sivas     siverek     soke     solhan     soma     sorgun     suhut     suluova     sungurlu     suruc     susehri     susurluk     talas     tarsus     tatvan     tekirdag     tepecik     terme     tire     tokat     tosya     trabzon     tunceli     turgutlu     turhal     unye     urfa     urla     usak     uzumlu     uzunkopru     van     vezirkopru     viransehir     yakuplu     yalova     yalvac     yenisehir     yerkoy     yozgat     yuksekova     zile     zonguldak    

National airlines
Turkish Airlinesairline website


Airports in Turkey
AdanaADA
Adnan Menderes AirportADB
AdiyamanADF
AfyonAFY
AgriAJI
EtimesgutANK
Anadolu UniversityAOE
KayseriASR
AntalyaAYT
BatmanBAL
BandirmaBDM
Bursa AirportBTZ
Imsik AirportBXN
BalikesirBZI
CanakkaleCKZ
DiyarbakirDIY
DalamanDLM
CardakDNZ
ErzincanERC
ErzurumERZ
EsenbogaESB
EskisehirESK
ElazigEZS
GaziantepGZT
Cigli Military AirportIGL
IspartaISE
AtaturkIST
Metropolitan AreaIZM
KahramanmarasKCM
Cengiz TopelKCO
KastamonuKFS
KarsKSY
KonyaKYA
MalatyaMLX
MerkezMQJ
MardinMQM
MusMSR
MerzifonMZH
NevsehirNAV
ZonguldakONQ
SanliurfaSFQ
Sinop AirportSIC
SinopSQD
SamsunSSX
SiirtSXZ
CarsambaSZF
CorluTEQ
TokatTJK
TrabzonTZX
UsakUSQ
VanVAN
SivasVAS
YenisehirYEI


Beer in Turkey (0.33l)
Alanya~ 0.4 EUR
Alanya~ 0.4 EUR
Altinkum~ 0.9 EUR
Ankara~ 1.2 EUR
Ankara~ 1.2 EUR
Bodrum~ 1.4 EUR
Bodrum~ 1.4 EUR
Dalaman~ 1.8 EUR
Eskisehir~ 1.1 EUR
Fethiye~ 1.3 EUR
Gaziantep~ 0.8 EUR
Hisaronu~ 0.9 EUR
Icmeler~ 1.4 EUR
Istanbul~ 1.6 EUR
Istanbul~ 1.6 EUR
Izmir~ 1.3 EUR
Izmir~ 1.3 EUR
Kas~ 1.4 EUR
Marmaris~ 1.7 EUR
Marmaris~ 1.7 EUR
MARMARIS~ 1.7 EUR
Ordu~ 0.6 EUR
Samsun~ 1 EUR
Sorgun~ 6 EUR
Unye~ 0.5 EUR

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