Facts about Nigeria
|Time zone||UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)|
Western Africa, bordering the Gulf of Guinea, between Benin and Cameroon
General info about Nigeria
British influence and control over what would become Nigeria and Africa's most populous country grew through the 19th century. A series of constitutions after World War II granted Nigeria greater autonomy; independence came in 1960. Following nearly 16 years of military rule, a new constitution was adopted in 1999, and a peaceful transition to civilian government was completed. The government continues to face the daunting task of reforming a petroleum-based economy, whose revenues have been squandered through corruption and mismanagement, and institutionalizing democracy. In addition, Nigeria continues to experience longstanding ethnic and religious tensions. Although both the 2003 and 2007 presidential elections were marred by significant irregularities and violence, Nigeria is currently experiencing its longest period of civilian rule since independence. The general elections of April 2007 marked the first civilian-to-civilian transfer of power in the country's history.
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepat
English (official), Hausa, Yoruba, Igbo (Ibo), Fulani
What about drugs?
a transit point for heroin and cocaine intended for European, East Asian, and North American markets; consumer of amphetamines; safe haven for Nigerian narcotraffickers operating worldwide; major money-laundering center; massive corruption and criminal activity; Nigeria has improved some anti-money-laundering controls, resulting in its removal from the Financial Action Task Force's (FATF's) Noncooperative Countries and Territories List in June 2006; Nigeria's anti-money-laundering regime continues to be monitored by FATF
Nigeria, Africa's most populous country, is composed of more than 250 ethnic groups; the following are the most populous and politically influential: Hausa and Fulani 29%, Yoruba 21%, Igbo (Ibo) 18%, Ijaw 10%, Kanuri 4%, Ibibio 3.5%, Tiv 2.5%
HIV/AIDS prevalence rate
5.4% (2003 est.)
varies; equatorial in south, tropical in center, arid in north
natural gas, petroleum, tin, iron ore, coal, limestone, niobium, lead, zinc, arable land
Oil-rich Nigeria, long hobbled by political instability, corruption, inadequate infrastructure, and poor macroeconomic management, has undertaken several reforms over the past decade. Nigeria's former military rulers failed to diversify the economy away from its overdependence on the capital-intensive oil sector, which provides 95% of foreign exchange earnings and about 80% of budgetary revenues. Following the signing of an IMF stand-by agreement in August 2000, Nigeria received a debt-restructuring deal from the Paris Club and a $1 billion credit from the IMF, both contingent on economic reforms. Nigeria pulled out of its IMF program in April 2002, after failing to meet spending and exchange rate targets, making it ineligible for additional debt forgiveness from the Paris Club. Since 2008 the government has begun showing the political will to implement the market-oriented reforms urged by the IMF, such as to modernize the banking system, to curb inflation by blocking excessive wage demands, and to resolve regional disputes over the distribution of earnings from the oil industry. In 2003, the government began deregulating fuel prices, announced the privatization of the country's four oil refineries, and instituted the National Economic Empowerment Development Strategy, a domestically designed and run program modeled on the IMF's Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility for fiscal and monetary management. In November 2005, Abuja won Paris Club approval for a debt-relief deal that eliminated $18 billion of debt in exchange for $12 billion in payments - a total package worth $30 billion of Nigeria's total $37 billion external debt. The deal requires Nigeria to be subject to stringent IMF reviews. Based largely on increased oil exports and high global crude prices, GDP rose strongly in 2007 and 2008. President YAR'ADUA has pledged to continue the economic reforms of his predecessor with emphasis on infrastructure improvements. Infrastructure is the main impediment to growth. The government is working toward developing stronger public-private partnerships for electricity and roads.
soil degradation; rapid deforestation; urban air and water pollution; desertification; oil pollution - water, air, and soil; has suffered serious damage from oil spills; loss of arable land; rapid urbanization
Cities in Nigeriaaba abakaliki abeokuta abonnema abuja afikpo agbor agulu aku akure amaigbo ankpa apomu asaba auchi awka azare bama bauchi bende benin bida biu bugama calabar damaturu daura duku dutse ede effium eha amufu ejigbo ekpoma emure enugu enugu ukwu epe eruwa fiditi funtua gashua gbongan gombe gusau hadejia ibadan idah idanre ife ifo igbara odo igbo ora igbo ukwu igboho igede ihiala ijebu igbo ijebu ode ijero ikere ikire ikirun ikole ikom ikorodu ikot ekpene ila ilesha ilobu ilorin inisa ipoti ise iseyin iwo jalingo jega jimeta jos kaduna kafanchan kagoro kano katsina keffi kishi kontagora kumo lafia lafiagi lagos lalupon lere lokoja maiduguri makurdi malumfashi minna modakeke mubi nguru nkpor nkwerre nnewi nsukka numan obosi ode offa ohafia okene okrika olupona ondo onitsha oron oshogbo otukpo owerri owo oyan oyo ozubulu pindiga port harcourt potiskum sapele shagamu shaki sokoto suleja uga ugep ughelli umuahia uromi uyo warri wukari yenagoa yola zaria